Update: Google Analytics no longer provides keyword ranking data inside of Google Analytics however you can still get this information with SEMRush. Check it out for 7 Days Free with this Special Link >
So Google Analytics won't give you this information but you can still get it and much much more with SEMRush. Here's what you can get –
As you can see you get keyword data, SERP ranking types, position data, difference week over week, traffic %, volume of keyword searches, KD = keyword difficulty, CPC of keyword, website URL, SERP data and date last crawled.